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FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY

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Offline Michael

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PostPosted: Fri Oct 31, 2008 1:15 am   Post subject: FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY   

FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY FOR THE CRIME SCENE TECHNICIAN


Forensic Photography for the Crime Scene Technician


Steven Staggs wrote:
Forensic Photography for the Crime Scene Technician

I. TECHNICAL PHOTOGRAPHY
A. Basic equipment for crime scene photography
1. Camera(s)
2. Normal lens
3. Wide angle lens
4. Close-up lenses or accessories
5. Filters
6. Electronic flash(s)
7. Remote or sync cord for electronic flash(s)
8. Extra camera and flash batteries
9. Locking cable release
10. Tripod
11. Film
12. Owner's manuals for camera and flash
13. Notebook and pen
14. Ruler
15. Gray card
16. Index cards and felt pen
17. Flashlight
B. Lenses
1. Normal lens
2. Wide angle lens
3. Other lenses
C. Care and maintenance of crime scene photography equipment
1. Cleaning lens and camera
2. Camera repair
3. Protection from extreme heat and cold
4. Protection from rain
D.Film
1. Color vs. black and white
2. Print film vs. slide film
3. Film speed
4. Matching film to the light source

II. CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY IS TECHNICAL PHOTOGRAPHY.
A. Photographs must be correctly exposed, have maximum depth
of field, be free from distortion and be in sharp focus
1. Correctly exposed
a. Exposure is controlled by the shutter speed and
lens aperture
b. Automated camera exposure systems and automatic
flash units can be fooled and give incorrect
exposures
c. Front, side and back lighting
d. Light meters
e. Flair
f. Using gray card
g. Bracketing exposures
2. Maximum depth of field
a. Depth of field is the area in a photograph in
which objects are in sharp focus
b. How to control depth of field
c. Zone focusing
(1) Preview depth of field
3. Free from distortion (must have good perspective)
a. Use a normal focal length lens when ever
possible
b. Keep the camera as level as possible
c. Photograph with the camera at eye level when
ever possible
4. Sharp focus
a. Keep the camera steady
b. Focus carefully and use maximum depth of field
c. Look at the frame of your scene

III. FLASH AND NIGHT PHOTOGRAPHY
A. Types of flash illumination
1. Manual flash
a. Set f/stop for the flash-to-subject distance
2. Automatic flash
a. Uses distance ranges
b. A change to a new range requires a change in
f/stop
c. Never work an automatic flash at its maximum
range, especially in less than ideal conditions
d. When in automatic flash, make sure the shutter
speed dial is set to the flash synchronization
speed
e. When photographing a high key scene (light or
reflective background) bracket <197> opening up
one or two f/stops
3. Dedicated flash
a. Sets correct flash synchronization speed when
the flash is in operation. Still uses
automatic sensor and ranges. The photographer
must set the appropriate f/stop for the
distance range
OR
b. Sets the correct flash synchronization speed
and f/stop for the automatic range selected
4. Dedicated TTL (Through-the-lens)
a. Uses a sensor inside the camera
b. Use smaller f/stops for short distances and
larger f/stops for long distances
c. For compensation or bracketing use the exposure
compensation dial
B. Problems with electronic flash
1. Flash synchronization
2. Coverage
a. Distances -- inverse square law of light
b. Long distances when outdoors at night or at
arson scenes
3. Reflective surfaces
a. Automatic flash units can shut off too soon due
to reflected light
4. Rain
C. Lighting techniques
1. Electronic flash (NOTE:Disregard the light meter in
the camera when using electronic flash)
a. Flash mounted on camera
b. Flash off camera
c. Bounce flash
(1) Bounce off a white or light colored
surface
(2) Manual flash: add the distance up and down
for the flash-to-subject distance then
figure in the absorbance loss (one to
three f/stops)
(3) Automatic flash with sensor facing the
subject: use a range for two times or more
times the actual flash-to-subject distance
d. Multiple flash
(1) Distance the flash units to provide the
same f/stop for each flash
2. Available light (no electronic flash)
3. Painting with light
a. The shutter is left open while the light source
is moved around until all of the scene is
properly illuminated
b. Procedure
(1) Mount the camera on a sturdy tripod
(2) Equip the camera with a lens shade (if
available)
(3) Screw a locking cable release into the
camera shutter release
(4) Set the shutter speed dial to B (bulb)
(5) Determine the f/stop based on the flash to
subject distance (not the camera to
subject distance)
(6) Focus carefully
(7) Depress the cable release and lock it to
hold the shutter open
(8) Fire the electronic flash to light areas
of the scene. The number of flashes and
angle of the flashes will depend on the
size and character of the scene. Do not
point the flash directly at the camera and
keep yourself out of the view of the
camera
(9) Unlock the cable release and allow the
shutter to close
(10) Advance the film

IV. CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY
A. Purpose of Crime Scene Photography
1. To record the original scene and related areas
2. To record the initial appearance of physical
evidence
3. It will provide investigators and others with this
permanent visual record of the scene for later use
4. Photographs are also used in court trials and
hearings
B. Admissibility of photographic evidence
1. Three major points of qualification of a photograph
in court
a. Object pictured must be material or relevant to
the point in issue
b. The photograph must not appeal to the emotions
or tend to prejudice the court or jury
c. The photograph must be free from distortion and
not misrepresent the scene or the object it
purports to reproduce
2. You do not need to be an expert in photography to
take crime scene photographs or testify about them

V. GENERAL CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY
A. Photographs are one way to record a crime scene
1. Field notes
2. Photographs
3. Sketches
B. Photographs
1. What photographs can show
2. What photographs do not show
C. Five steps in recording the crime scene
1. Secure the scene
2. Take preliminary notes
3. Take overview photographs
4. Make a basic sketch
5. Record each item of evidence
D. Taking overview photographs
1. Purpose
a. To show the scene exactly as it was when you
first saw it
(1) If something was moved before you arrived,
don't try to reconstruct the scene as it
was. The photographs should show the
scene as you found it
2. Major crime photography
a. First discuss the crime, evidence and
photographs needed with other investigators at
the scene
b. Be careful not to destroy any evidence while
taking the photographs
c. Outside the scene
(1) Exterior of the building where the crime
occurred and in some cases the whole
locale
(2) Aerial photographs of the scene and the
surrounding area can be useful in some
types of cases
(3) Original series of photographs should also
show all doors, windows and other means of
entrance or exit
d. Inside the scene
(1) Begin with a view of the entrance
(2) Then photograph the scene as it appears
when you first step into the room
(3) Next, move around the room to get
photographs of all the walls
(a) These photographs should also show
the positions of any potential items
of evidence
(4) Include photographs of other rooms
connected with the actual crime scene
3. Using video to record the crime scene
a. Frequently valuable to show an overview of the
scene
E. Photographs to record items of evidence
1. Take two photographs of each item of evidence
a. One should be an orientation (midrange) shot to
show how the item is related to its
surroundings
b. The second photograph should be a close-up to
bring out the details of the object itself
2. Measuring and marking devices
a. Take two photographs if a marking or measuring
device is used
(1) One photograph without the device, the
other with the device
(2) So the defence can't claim that the scene
was altered or that the device was
concealing anything important

VI. PHOTOGRAPHING SPECIFIC CRIME SCENES
Note:Each crime scene has unique characteristics and the type
of photographs needed will be determined at the scene by the
investigator familiar with the crime.
A. Homicide
1. Use color film
2. Photographs (example: homicide inside a residence)
a. Exterior of the building
b. Evidence outside the building
c. Entrance into the scene
d. Room in which the body was found
e. Adjoining rooms, hallways, stairwells
f. Body from five angles
g. Close-up of body wounds
h. Weapons
i. Trace evidence
j. Signs of activity prior to the homicide
k. Evidence of a struggle
l. View from positions witnesses had at time of
the crime
(1) Use a normal lens
m. Autopsy
B. Suicide, other dead body calls
1. If there is any doubt, photograph the scene as a
homicide
C. Burglaries
1. Photographs (residential or commercial burglaries)
a. Exterior of building
b. Point of entry
c. Entrance into scene
d. Interior views
e. Area from which valuable articles were removed
f. Damage to locks, safe, doors, toolmarks
g. Articles or tools left at the scene by the
suspect
h. Trace evidence
i. Other physical evidence
D. Assaults, injuries
1. Photographing injuries
a. Face of victim in the photographs
b. Bruises
c. Bite marks
(1) Orientation shot
(2) Close-up at 90 degree angle to avoid
distortion
(3) Ruler in same plane as bite mark
(4) Focus carefully
(5) Bracket exposures
2. Equipment
a. Always use color film and no filter
b. Use color charts and rulers
c. Flash unit with diffused lighting
E. Traffic Accidents and Hit and Run Cases
1. Photographs at the accident scene
a. Where the vehicles came to rest and in what
position
(1) Photographs should show the relationship
of each vehicle with each other
b. Damage to vehicles
(1) Technical photographs of damage to a
vehicle
(a) Do not take any oblique or corner
photographs to show damage for
reconstruction purposes because they
are not aligned with the axis of
the vehicle. They tend to conceal
the amount and direction of the
damage.
(b) Take six photographs. Two from each
side in line with the axles. Take
one of each end of the vehicle,
straight on. If possible take one
more from overhead
(c) Use electronic flash to fill in
shadows within the damage
c. Debris or marks on the roadway
d. View each driver had approaching the key point
of the accident.
e. View from the point a witness observed the
accident, at witness' eye level
f. Evidence to identify hit and run vehicles
2. Night photography
a. Use multiple flash, paint with light or
available light for extra long skidmarks or to
show two vehicles some distance apart

VII. USING FLASH FILL
A. Steps
1. Set the shutter speed to the camera's flash
synchronization speed (usually 1/60 second)
2. Use the camera's light meter to determine the
correct f/stop. Set that f/stop on your lens.
3. With the flash on manual, find the flash to subject
distance for the above f/stop.
4. Position the flash unit at that distance and take
the photograph.

VIII. PHOTOGRAPHING EVIDENCE
A. Fingerprints
1. When to photograph fingerprints
a. Before lifting on major cases or if the latent
may be destroyed when lifting
b. To bring out detail in a latent
2. Equipment
a. 1:1 cameras and copy cameras
b. 35mm cameras with macro or close-up lens
attachments
c. Gray card for available light exposures
3. Films
a. Well defined fingerprints can be photographed
with color film but black and white film
provides more contrast and is preferred for
latent print photography
(1) Kodak T-MAX film. Develop in T-MAX
developer while increasing the development
time by 25% for increased contrast.
(2) Kodak TECHNICAL PAN 2415 film has a
variable contrast range between high and
low and a variable speed of ISO 25 to 320.
(a) For high contrast expose at ISO 100
and develop in HC-110
(3) Kodak KODALITH film for highest contrast
(a) Packaged as Kodak Ektagraphic HC
Slide Film (HCS 135-36) and has an
approximate ISO of 8.
(b) If developed in D-76 or HC-110 there
will be a limited gray scale.
(4) Ilford XP-2 black and white film can be
processed in color processors
(a) ISO 400, fine grain with good
sharpness & resolution can be
processed in C-41 color chemistry
4. Filters
a. Color filters, when used in black and white
photography, can be used to build contrast by
either lightening or darkening the subject
(latent print) or by lightening or darkening
the background (background drop-out)
(1) To lighten a color, the color filter
closest to the color is used
(2) To darken a color, the opposite color
filter is used
(3) See Filter Chart for examples
5. Procedures
a. Establish the location of the latent
b. Close-up to show detail
(1) A 1:1 camera or device must be used, or
(2) A scale must be included in the photograph
on the same plane as the latent
(3) Photograph with the film plane parallel to
the latent surface
(4) Get as much depth of field as possible,
especially for curved surfaces
c. Exposure
(1) Available light exposures of latents with
normal contrast can be metered using a
gray card
(2) Bracketing may reveal more detail in
"low contrast" latents.
(a) Underexposing the film will separate
the steps on the white end of the
gray scale. Overexposure will
separate the steps on the black end
of the gray scale.
(b) The latitude for black and white film
is generally two stops underexposure
and six stops overexposure.
d. Specific types of fingerprint subjects
(1) Normal, dusted prints
(a) Usually can be photographed with no
problem
(2) Impressions in soft substances (wax,
putty, clay, adhesive tape, grease, etc.)
or in dust
(a) Use cross lighting at an oblique angle
(b) Preview with flashlight lighting
(3) Porous surfaces
(a) May need to use close to a 90 degree
lighting angle
(b) Preview with flashlight lighting
(4) Glass and mirrors
(a) Glass -- place white card or cloth
behind glass, use low oblique angle
of light
(5) Perspiration prints on glass
(a) Use back (transmitted) lighting and
diffusion screen
(6) Ninhydrin fingerprint
(a) Use normal black and white film
(T-MAX or PLUS-X) with a green filter
and increase development time 25%
B. Impressions
1. Footprints and tire tracks
a. Procedure
(1) Take an orientation photograph to show
where in the scene the impression is
located
(2) Take a close-up for detail
(a) Use a scale on the same plane as the
impression
(b) Keep the film plane parallel to the
plane of the impression
(c) Block out ambient light and use a
strong light source at different
angles to find the light angle(s)
that shows the best detail in the
impression -- then put the electronic
flash or light source at that angle
for the photograph
(3) Photograph tire impressions in sections
showing one circumference of the tire
(a) Use a tape measure for overlapping
photographs
C. Bloodstain photography
1. Use color film
2. Orientation photographs to show locations of
bloodstain evidence at the scene
3. Close-up photographs to show detail
a. Use a scale on the same plane as the bloodstain
b. Keep the film parallel to the plane of the
bloodstain
c. Use a low oblique light angle
D. Toolmarks
E. Serial numbers
F. Small items, copying, etc.
1. Close-up lenses and devices
2. Lighting
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Offline Michael

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PostPosted: Fri Oct 31, 2008 1:25 am   Post subject: VIDEO GUIDELINES FOR EVIDENCE SCENES   

VIDEO GUIDELINES FOR EVIDENCE SCENES



VIDEO GUIDE LINES FOR EVIDENCE SCENES


Peter William Thomas, Senior Sergeant 4891, Video Support Unit wrote:
VIDEO GUIDE LINES FOR EVIDENCE SCENES

BEFORE SETTING OUT
CONSIDER

Do I have all the equipment I need?
Is camera & lens combination sufficient?
Lights - spare bulbs - correct leads - mounts?
Batteries - fully charged - spares?
Battery charger, if going on a long trip?
Sufficient tapes and labels?
Radio mike, headphones & leads - are they there and working?
Is tripod fitted with correct shoe for camera?
Is there any other non-standard equipment I might need for this particular job?
WHEN ON CALL - CHECK THAT ALL GEAR IS IN THE KITS AND IT IS WORKING PROPERLY!!!)

JOB DETAILS
CONSIDER

Do I have sufficient job details?
Do I know where to go?
What are the circumstances of the scene?
Do I need protective clothing or camouflage?
Do I need to approach with caution?
Is there a meeting point away from the scene - if so when and where?
Who do I report to on arrival?
AT THE SCENE
REMEMBER YOU ARE PART OF A TEAM SO ENSURE YOU INTEGRATE WITH IT EFFECTIVELY. OTHER TEAM MEMBERS COULD INCLUDE:

Forensic personnel.
Investigators.
Police crowd and/or traffic controllers.
Fire Brigade.
Ambulance.
T.R.G.
S.E.S.
B.A.S.I.
IF FORENSIC PERSONNEL ARE IN ATTENDANCE - REPORT TO THEIR SENIOR OFFICER AND FOLLOW HIS DIRECTIONS AT ALL TIMES.

IF THEY ARE ON THEIR WAY - WAIT FOR THEIR ARRIVAL UNLESS COMMON SENSE & CIRCUMSTANCES DICTATE EARLIER ACTION.

UNLESS the scene is still being created, e.g. fire burning, offence still in progress, etc. DO NOT just take out camera and start shooting.

INSTEAD

Get a good and accurate concept of the scene and its history (e.g. how did the scene/crime unfold, what are its boundaries, why is the body a long way from the weapon, is there more than one seat of fire, etc. etc.).
Make written notes in an official notebook showing:
Time & date of arrival.
Location details.
Victim details (name, etc.)
Names of other team members.
Times of new events.
Brief details of these events.
PLAN THE APPROACH

Plan how you will record your evidence, using a systematic approach.
Is it safe to enter scene - will that wall collapse, the ceiling fall in, the charred boat hull give way, is it booby trapped, etc. etc.?
Am I appropriately dressed - hard hat, overalls, safety boots, gloves, camouflage, etc.?
Which way in (and out) - liaise with O.I.C. Forensic?
IN THE SCENE
Watch for and take care not to disturb:

Shoe impressions.
Tyre tracks.
Blood.
Fibres.
Fingerprints.
Clothing.
Bedding.
Impacted vehicles/aircraft.
Debris.
Any other object with potential evidential value.
Always use the agreed safety route into and out of the scene.

DO NOT be sidetracked into other tasks by investigators without first consulting with the Forensic team O.I.C..

UNLESS URGENT finish off your systematic evidence gathering run before being diverted to other tasks. This includes the note taking process.

CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Check lighting - is it daylight, artificial or a mixture?
Should the scene be lit - if so how?
Select appropriate camera filter and ALWAYS WHITE BALANCE!
Do not mix light of different colour temperature unless absolutely unavoidable! Consider using blue filter over artificial light to match daylight!
Every shot is important - shoot it as if it is the most important of the series.
Take your time - plan your pan - don't chase focus or subject.
Don't scrub the scene (i.e. pan side to side, up and down). One clean sweep is much more professional.
Before zooming to close up during a take, zoom, focus and pull back first - then do the take. This will avoid the awful spectacle of zooming out of focus.
Always take an exterior GV (General View) or 'establisher' shot of the location (house, factory, boat, caravan, etc.). This will leave no doubt as to where the scene is located.
Before (or after) showing a BCU (Big Close Up) of an object, do a LS (Long Shot) or MS (Mid Shot) of it to establish its location in relation to other parts of the scene.
When covering a long narrow section of a scene (e.g. road, corridor, rail track, etc.), consider a slow zoom from a tripod - pulling focus if necessary; rather than clumsily walking along it (Dolly Shot) with the inevitable, disconcerting sway and judder.
If perspective has to change (i.e. you have to see behind objects or demonstrate their separation from each other), then use of a "Dolly Shot" may be unavoidable. In this case use the lens at its widest possible angle (to minimise sway and judder) and move as smoothly as possible. Again plan your shot - route - focusing points - etc., before moving off.
In small rooms or spaces (toilets, bathrooms, caves, etc.) use of a high camera angle from a corner will give the maximum coverage of the area.
High camera angles are also useful when separation of objects on similar plains is required.
Don't be dissuaded from using a tripod when necessary. It may take more time but your shots will be more professional. DON'T use it if there is any risk of contaminating or disturbing a scene, or interfering with the duties of other team members.
AIM FOR quality - not quantity! A lot of ground can be covered with a few well planned shots. Unnecessarily repeating or prolonging shots will only bore or confuse, and won't enhance the evidential value of the video.
THINK LIKE AN EDITOR AS YOU SHOOT!
REMEMBER
YOU ARE A PROFESSIONAL - PEOPLE COME TO YOU BECAUSE YOU CAN DO THE JOB BETTER THAN THEM. ENSURE YOUR TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THIS SUPERIORITY OTHERWISE IT WON'T BE LONG BEFORE THEY DO THE JOB FOR THEMSELVES.

LET TECHNIQUE MASTER TECHNOLOGY - DON'T LET TECHNOLOGY BECOME YOUR MASTER. THE BEST EQUIPMENT IN THE WORLD WILL NEVER REPLACE CREATIVITY AND REASONING.
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Offline Michael

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Posts: 16732

Location: England

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PostPosted: Fri Oct 31, 2008 1:44 am   Post subject: CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY GUIDELINES   

CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY GUIDELINES



CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY GUIDELINES


Michael Byrd, Miami-Dade Police Department, Crime Scene Investigations wrote:
The photographs taken at a crime scene are critical to an investigation. I am often asked how many photographs should actually be taken at a crime scene? There is no magic number when it comes to properly documenting the scene through photographs. It will actually depend on an investigators opinion as to when he/she feels enough photos have been taken to properly preserve the state of the scene in its original condition upon his/her arrival.

The purpose of crime scene photographs are to give a documented record of the scene as it is observed. There is a special skill and technique to crime scene photography. Therefore it takes training and practice for the investigator to be proficient in the task. The investigator should first become familiar with the camera equipment used by his/her agency or department. That equipment should include the flash system as well as the lenses and a tripod. The time to become familiar with a particular piece of equipment is not during a major case when it is taken out of the vehicle.

Most training classes available to the investigator in crime scene photography or forensic photography deal with bench or close up photography using special lighting techniques. These are good courses to begin with since these are the areas that present the most difficulty to the photographer in the early career or training stages. In the field the investigator will find that these techniques are generally used less than a third of their time.

The investigator should begin taking photographs of the scene as soon as possible after arriving on the scene. This will assure that the scene is depicted as it is observed in its original uninterrupted state. Nothing should be touched, moved, or initiated into the scene until it has been thoroughly photographed and documented.

In crime scene photography there are three (3) general positions or views which are necessary. Those views consist of overall photographs showing the entire scene, mid-range photographs showing a relationship of the items, and a close up photograph of the items of evidence themselves.

When taking general photographs of a home, business, or vehicle make sure to take photographs showing the windows, doors or all entry locations. If a numerical location is displayed on the outside of a structure or on a mailbox make sure it is photographed.

As an example of the number of photographs which may be taken at a particular scene, take a standard bedroom, the investigator may choose to take an overall from each wall as well as from each corner of the room. That gives eight (8) different overall view points in the room. The mid-range and close up photographs would be dependant on the associations or relationships of items that might be needed as well as a particular piece of evidence in the room that may need to be documented.

At an outdoor scene where you have a nearby balcony or stairwell, take a few photographs from the highest point showing the overall scene. The investigator is only going to be limited to his/her imagination.

If you are asked to photograph a particular item of evidence make sure you use a neutral background. First you want a contrasting background, second you do not use a red or dark red background that might be considered inflammatory and not be allowed into court.

When taking photographs of a vehicle for documentation, make sure to do an overall from each side, front, back, all four (4) corners of the vehicle. Included the license plate, V.I.N, any decals, custom accessories, any damage, inside the trunk, the front and rear interior, glove box, ignition area, and the instrument panel of the vehicle.

Another tool in crime scene photography that is very important which is rarely covered in lectures or taught and is often overlooked is special techniques photography with the use of resources like cones depicting a trail of blood, photographic numbers and letters depicting areas and items of evidence, Dow rods and string depicting pathways of projectiles, stick on numbers or letters depicting the bullet holes in a door or ricochet marks on a wall or vehicle, etc. The use of this systematic approach in photographing the scene creates an excellent tool for telling the scene story through photography of the conditions and locations of evidence at the scene. Make sure that everything is consistently organized and corresponds with the crime scene sketch. Have all of the letters and markers facing the same direction for the photographs. All of these tasks make for a professional looking presentation at a briefing and allows for a user friendly or clearly understandable presentation during a trial or court room proceeding. Again the limitations that you have as an investigator are your own imagination.

Practice and knowledge of the equipment is the key to gaining the confidence in properly documenting the crime scene through photography. Good luck!
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